Bioflavonoids | Flavonoids

“Bioflavonoids” (also known as Flavonoids): Best Food Sources – Citrus fruits (especially the white part of the peel or ‘pith’), apples, berries, green tea, onions, parsley, legumes and red wine.

Bioflavonoids
Buy Bioflavonoids online at low prices. Large selection of natural bioflavonoids, botanicals, vitamins and minerals. SHOP NOW!

Flavonoids are most commonly known for their antioxidant activity. However, it is now known that the health benefits they provide against cancer and heart disease are the result of other mechanisms. Flavonoids are also commonly referred to as bioflavonoids in the media – the terms are equivalent and interchangeable, for flavonoids are biological in origin.

The term flavonoid refers to a class of plant secondary metabolites. According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into:

flavonoids, derived from the 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure
isoflavonoids, derived from the 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure
neoflavonoids, derived from the 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structure.

Thanks to the University of North Carolina School of Pharmacy for access to this article!

Amy Bigus, Deanna Massengill, and Christy Walker

What are Bioflavonoids / Flavonoids

Bioflavonoids abound in the orange pith.
A great source of bioflavonoids is the white part of citrus peels. The pith of the orange, for example.
  • Once known as “Vitamin P” and semi-essential nutrients
  • 4000 flavonoid compounds have been characterized and classified
  • Group of plant pigments that are largely responsible for colors of many fruits and flowers
  • Useful in treatment and prevention of many health conditions

Four categories:

PCO (Proanthocyanidins)

  • most potent PCOs are those bound to other PCOs
  • exist in many plants and red wine
  • commercially available sources are from grape seeds and bark from the maritime pine

Quercetin

  • serves as backbone for other flavonoids such as citrus flavonoids: rutin, quercitrin, hesperidin
  • these derivatives have sugar molecules attached to the backbone
  • most active of the flavonoids

Citrus bioflavonoids

  • include rutin, quercitrin, hesperidin, naringin
  • standardized mixture of rutinosides known as hydroxyethylrutosides (HER)
  • clinical results have been obtained in treatment of capillary permeability, easy bruising, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins

Green Tea Polyphenols

Polyphenols = Flavonoids
The polyphenols in green tea = Bioflavonoids. Drink up with a squirt of fresh lemon or lime!
  • derived from tea plant camellia sinensis
  • produced by steaming the fresh cut leaf
  • polyphenol indicates presence of phenolic ring in the chemical structure
  • polyphenols = flavonoids
  • polyphenols in green tea: catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and proanthocyanidins
  • epigallocatechin gallate = most significant active compound

Dietary Sources

Bioflavonoids = Flavonoids = polyphenols.
The pith from the orange, or any citrus fruit, provide plenty of bioflavonoids.
  • Citrus fruits
  • Berries
  • Onions
  • Parsley
  • Legumes
  • Green Tea
  • Red Wine

Average Daily Intake = 150-200 mg

Beneficial Effects

  • referred to as “nature’s biological response modifiers” – modify body’s reaction to compounds such as allergens, viruses, and carcinogens
  • powerful antioxidants by giving protection versus oxidative and free radical damage
  • prevents formation of oxidized cholesterol through antioxidant effects
  • greater antioxidant effects than Vitamins C, E, Selenium, and Zinc

PCOs

  • increase intracellular Vitamin C levels
  • decrease capillary permeability and fragility
  • scavenge oxidants and free radicals
  • inhibit destruction of collagen

Crosslinks collagen fibers to reinforce the natural crosslinking and prevents free radical damage

  • inhibits enzymatic cleavage of collagen by enzymes secreted by leukocytes in inflammation and microbes in infections
  • prevents release and synthesis and compounds that promote inflammation and allergies (histamines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes)

antioxidant effects are beneficial in:

  • aging process
  • chronic degenerative diseases (heart disease, arthritis, and cancer)
  • fat and cholesterol oxidation

antioxidants are produced by:

  • inhibiting xanthine oxidase noncompetitively(oxygen free radicals)
  • on the cellular level: PCOs are incorporated into the cell membranes along with the antioxidant effects offer great protection to cells against free radical damage.

Quercetin

Quercetin Bioflavonoids
Buy high quality Quercetin online. Low prices and large selection of natural supplements. Shop NOW!
  • anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of initial processes of inflammation
  • inhibits manufacture and release of histamine
  • potent antioxidant activity and Vitamin C sparing action
    beneficial effects for diabetics
  • helps prevent diabetic cataracts, and retinopathy
    enhances insulin secretion
    protects pancreatic beta cells from free radical damage
  • antiviral activity
  • activity vs. herpes virus type 1, parainfluenzae3, polio virus type 1, and respiratory syncytial virus
    in vivo, inhibits viral infection
    may be of some benefit in the common cold

Citrus Bioflavonoids

  • antioxidant effects
  • increase intracellular Vitamin C, rutin, hesperidin, and HER
  • beneficial effects on capillary permeability and blood flow like PCOs
  • anti-allergy and anti-inflammatory effects like quercetin

Green Tea Polyphenols

  • inhibit formation of cancer causing compounds like nitrosamines in vitro
    • suppressing activation of carcinogens
    • trapping cancer causing agents

forms of cancer that green tea prevents best:

    • increase activity of antioxidant enzymes in the small intestines, liver, lungs, and small bowel
    • potent antioxidant effects
    • cancers of GI tract (stomach, small intestine, pancreas, colon)
    • cancer of the lungs
    • estrogen related cancers (inhibits estrogen interaction with its receptor)

consumption of green tea with meals inhibits formation of nitrosamines (nitrites combined with amino acids)

Principle Uses

PCOs

Treatment of venous and capillary disorders

venous insufficiency
varicose veins
capillary fragility

Diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration
Prevention of heart disease and strokes
Lowers blood cholesterol levels
Shrinks size of cholesterol deposits in the artery
Inhibits platelet aggregation and vascular constriction

Quercetin

In vitro, helps virtually all inflammatory and allergic conditions

asthma
hay fever
rheumatoid arthritis
lupus

Beneficial in diabetes and cancer

Citrus Bioflavonoids

Venous insufficiency
Improve microvascular blood flow and clinical symptoms (pain, tired legs, night cramps, and restless legs)
Improve venous function
Relieve hemorrhoidal signs and symptoms in pregnant women

Green Tea Polyphenols

Used principally to prevent cancer

Available Forms

PCOs

Grape seed extract (92%-95%) and pine bark extract (80%-85%)
Used interchangeably, but grape seed extract is preferred
Grape seed extract is considered more potent and more effective than pine bark extract because only grape seed extract has gallic esters of proanthocyanidins which are the most active free radical scavenging PCOs

Quercetin

Available in powder and capsule forms
For anti-inflammatory effects, combination of Bromelain (pineapple enzyme) may provide additional benefit by enhancing absorption of quercetin
Amount of Bromelain should equal quercetin

Citrus Bioflavonoids

Mixed preparations are most widely used
Least active and quantified source of flavonoids

Green Tea Polyphenols

Commercial preparations that have been decaffeinated and concentrated for polyphenols (60%-80%)
1 cup = 300-400 mg of polyphenols
Downside = this dose also contains 50-100 mg of caffeine

Dosage Ranges

PCOs

Preventive and antioxidant=50 mg/day of grape seed extract or pine bark extract
Therapeutic purposes dose=150-300 mg/day of either extract

Quercetin

200-400 mg taken 20 minutes before meals three times a day

Citrus Bioflavonoids

2000-6000 mg/day

Green Tea Polyphenols

For green tea extract standardized for 80% polyphenols and 55 % epigallocatechin gallate, the dose=300-400 mg/day

*Look for level of epigallocatechin gallate and total content of polyphenol

Safety Issues of Bioflavonoids:

PCOs

safe, no toxicities, no side effects

Quercetin

Well-tolerated in humans
no side effects when taken in large quantities for long periods of time
safe for use in pregnancy
allergic reaction may occur-uncommon, but should result in discontinuation of product

Citrus Bioflavonoids

extremely safe
no side effects
safe in pregnancy

Green Tea Polyphenols

no side effects or toxicities
if product contains caffeine, overconsumption may result in a stimulant effect

Interactions

Do not interact with any drugs
citrus bioflavonoids containing naringin may interact with drugs

naringin is found in grapefruit juice
can increase oral bioavailability of drugs like nifedipine, felodipine, verapamil, and terfenadine
inhibits breakdown of various drugs including: caffeine, coumarins, and estrogens

Vitamin C-Bioflavonoids may enhance the effects of vitamin C

References

Evans CA and Miller NJ.
“Antioxidant activities of flavonoids as bioactive components of food.”
Biochemical Society Transactions. 24(3):790-795, 1996.

Hertog Michael, et al.
“Flavonoid Intake and Long-term Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Cancer in the Seven Countries Study.”
Archives of Internal Medicine. 155:381-386, 1995.

Kandaswami Chithan, et al.
“Ascorbic acid-enhanced antiproliferative effect of flavonoids on squamous cell carcinoma in vitro.”
Anti-Cancer Drugs. 4:91-95, 1993.

Lale A, Herbert JM, et al.
“Ability of Different Flavonoids to Inhibit the Procoagulant Activity of Adherent Human Monocytes.”
Journal of Natural Products. 59:273-276, 1996.

Murray MT. “Flavonoids.”
Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. p. 320-331.

So Felicia, et al.
“Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by flavonoids in the presence and absence of excess estrogen.”
Cancer Letters. 112:127-133, 1997.

Wiseman H.
“Role of dietary phyto-oestrogens in the protection against cancer and heart disease.”
Biochemical Society Transactions. 24(3):785-789, 1996.

Xiao-duo Ji, et al.
“Interactions of Flavonoids and Other Phytochemicals with Adenosine Receptors.”
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39:781-787, 1996.
Thanks to the University of North Carolina School of Pharmacy for the use of this article.

Total health from Bermuda to you!